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Martins^ **• y Emporiae JAURI f* THRACE tfebru* HISPANIA CITERIOR Sinope Emerita ^ Saguntum r Dytrlwchium Y MACEDONIA 1 I Thessalonicaa—^c r Apollonia /A Byzantium _ Cyzicus Corduba Ikietis ^ BAETICA licomadla Neapolls c Brundisium °Ar»cyra / s ' GALATIA Melitene£ — CAPPADOCIA J Balearic Is MYSIA ^Pergamum ASIA t Smyrna^ Carthago Nova Co.cv&W HESSA V Ac 'i u "^ AC oiyn J&IT& PELOPONNESE . Bulla J ■ SICIUA'^^""™*' 30 isiso Re 9« j r Lambaesis o NUMIDIA ASIA Provinces shown thus j Land over 1,000 metres / SCALE / 0 250 5 km 0 250 500 miles Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 PREFACE This volume covers the history of the Roman empire in the period from a.d. It was Mucianus who had to break the power of this hero of the soldiers, already the recipient of con- sular insignia from the Senate, first by promoting his supporters and hinting at an honourable term as governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, a position left vacant by Cluvius Rufus, then by sending away from Rome his own legion on which he most depended. Mucianus first tried demoraliz- ing the Vitellians and then sending Domitian as Vespasian’s representative with promises of honourable discharge and land. In the last days of 69, Domitian had been called Caesar by the soldiers and named praetor designate by senatorial decree, and early in 70 he replaced Iulius Frontinus as urban praetor, after which his name appeared on the letters and edicts implementing the prin- ceps’ wishes. The reference on the papyrus would be best explained if Alexander became praetorian prefect before he reached Rome and while still in the vicinity of Egypt. 34 Yet Suetonius says that, when the Senate voted, apparently on this occasion, to put up a naval monument in Galba’s honour on the spot where he was slain, 33 Arrius Varus: Tac. io), which is preserved on a bronze plaque discovered c. The law also indemnifies anyone who, in obedience to this law, violates any other legal requirement. 211 ’ Titus continued the utilitarian building programme of his father, contributing aqueducts and roads in Italy and the provinces. Inscriptions commemorate his initiative in reconstructing demolished buildings at Naples and at Salerno. As is suggested by the largely similar staffing of provinces, it was more important that the governors provide a clear rep- resentation of the power and dominance of Rome, carry out their cult duties towards the provincials and the army units stationed in the province, and that they were accessible when needed by the inhabitants of the prov- ince. Aelius Aristides met the prop- erty requirements for municipal magistracies or the post of eirenarchos in the province of Asia, and since he did not practise his profession as a philoso- pher for public benefit, there was no reason for him to receive special priv- ileges.)T 1 AEGAEUML V MARE Cl HOS^i Jg Ath^na Carteta Samosata Caesarea LYCIA liftias P AMP Wy Tarsus! %alamis CYPRUS Rhodes Palmyra ^Cnossus 0 SYRIA PALAESTINA Jerusalem Caesarea i ^pcis Magna Cyrene Alexandria] Memphis' SINUS ARABICUS\ X® S Map i The Roman world in the rime of Marcus Aurelius Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 o Volubilis MAURITANIA IVIHUHI I H l«l H TINGITANIA MAURITANIA I C AES ARIENSIS o Cart ! 70 to 192, the period of well over a century of political stability, if we ignore the hiccup of Domitian’s assassination, between the end of the first imperial civil war and the eve of the second. This was not a matter of personal envy on the part of Mucianus, for when Primus fled to Vespasian he was not reinstated. 8.5; Dio Lxvi.10.2; Hist, iv.81 with Chilver’s (1984) commentary. Eventually, he had to re- enroll them all en masse and then discharge or retain them individually. It was he who presided over the Senate on 9 January when Egnatius Celer was condemned and lunius Mauricus, the brother of one of Thrasea Paetus’ close associates, asked that access to the notebooks of previous emperors be granted to the Senate so that accusers could be brought to justice. The praetorian prefecture is gener- ally taken to be a separate post from the prefecture of the Judaean army, mentioned by Josephus: that was an exceptional post created by Vespasian because of Titus’ inexperience as a commander. 1345 and displayed in the Basilica of St John Lateran in Rome by Cola di Rienzo, cites all of these emperors as precedents in four of its eight clauses and Claudius alone in one. It has been suggested that none of these provisions was an innovation and that even the apparent illogicality of granting specific prerogatives and specific dispensations from the laws (clause VII) alongside the apparent blanket grant of authority (clause VI) goes back to a.d. 1.50 of Vespasian, ‘solus omnium ante se principum in melius mutatus est’. 204 He added one further storey with two tiers of seats to the Flavian amphitheatre, 205 and on the grounds of the Domus Aurea on the Oppian Hill, his Baths rose with impressive rapidity. The generosity of Titus The splendid games that attended the completion of the last two structures in 80, when the Arval Brothers were assigned their seats, were celebrated by the poet Martial in his book De Spectaculis. 212 At Rome he gave a personal demonstration of the Flavian concern to put public amenities over imperial luxuries — this time at his own expense rather than Nero’s — by using the ornaments of his villas to adorn the rebuilt public buildings and temples. 38 The everyday point of reference for provincials was and remained their own home community, within which and through whose officials and resources the public needs could normally be satisfied. The generally accepted forms of socio-political influence, however, overrode any rational judgement based on the actual facts.The humbler material, mostly funerary, for soldiers and civilians has spawned new areas of expertise in military, social and demographic studies. omnis provincias exercitusque lustraverant , velut expiato terrarum orbe cepisse finem videbantur’. His reluctance to assume the latus clavus in early life foreshad- owed the caution he showed in making his bid for the throne: he was lucky to have dynamic and impetuous allies. They then moved on to Alexandria where they heard of the death of Vitellius on 20 December. In contrast to the imperial special legates, who were without exception all of senatorial rank, the curatores rei publicae were drawn from various social groups. The supposed first curator rei publicae in Smyrna under Nero is too suspect in this respect to play a role in this discussion (cf. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 280 7 .
440 1 3 Spain 444 by geza alfoldy, Professor of Ancient History, University of Heidelberg I Provincial government and army 445 II Economy 448 III Urbanization and cities 450 IV Society 452 V Cultural life 458 VI The age of the Flavians and Antonines: diachronic aspects 459 14 Gaul 462 by c. I 17—193 5 5 3 1 8 Britain 5 5 9 ly Michael fulford, Yates Professor of Archaeology, University of Reading I The frontier 5 6 1 II Urban development 5 66 III Rural development 571 IV Economy 574 19 The Danube provinces 577 by j. wilkes, Yates Professor of Greek and Roman Archaeology, University College London I The frontier 5 80 II Provincial and local government 585 III Settlements and economy 591 IV Society and culture 600 20 Greece and Asia Minor 604 by Barbara levick, Fellow and Tutor in Ancient History, St Hilda’s College, Oxford I Vespasian’s reorganization of the Greek East: recovery and advance under the Flavians 604 II Philhellene emperors: the interventions of Trajan 61 1 III Philhellene emperors: Hadrian, Athens and the Panhellenion 620 IV The Antonines: a marred prosperity 627 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 CONTENTS IX 21 Syria and Arabia 635 by maurice sartre, Professor of Ancient History, Francois Rabelais University of Tours I The integration of the client states and the process of provincialization 635 II The development of the land and the organization of the indigenous societies 641 III The spread of the civic model and the urbanization of the region 649 IV The success of the artisan class and the apogee of Syrian trade 656 22 Judaea 664 l/y martin Goodman, Fellow of Wolfson College and Reader in Jewish Studies, University of Oxford I The great revolt and its aftermath 664 II The rebuilding of Judaea 665 III The diaspora revolt under Trajan 669 IV The Bar Kochba War 671 V Jewish settlement, 1 3 5-1 93 674 VI Religious changes 677 PART Va ECONOMY AND SOCIETY 23 The land 679 l/y peter garnsey, Fellow of fesus College and Professor of the History of Classical Antiquity, University of Cambridge I Introduction 679 II Climate and crop 680 III Expansion and innovation in agriculture 692 IV Social and geographical distribution of property 695 V Management and labour 702 VI Productivity 706 24 Trade 710 by w. Harris , Professor of History, Columbia University, New York I Introduction 710 II The geographical setting 713 III Commercial transport 714 IV Commodities 716 V The geographical patterns of trade 729 VI Personnel 731 VII Companies and guilds 735 Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 X CONTENTS VIII Commercial finance 736 IX Governmental intervention and its limits 738 X The character and scale of Roman trade 739 XI Changes over 1 20 years 740 25 Industry and technology 741 by kevin greene, Senior Lecturer in Archaeology, University of Newcastle upon Ty ne I Industry 741 II Technology 754 III Conclusions 766 26 Commerce and finance 769 by j . He was not back on 21 June for the religious ceremony of moving the Terminus stone, the first step towards the rest- oration of the great Capitoline temple which had been burned during the defeat of the Vitellians. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 VESPASIAN 7 L. 22 Even if none of these was ambitious, they could, as the few remaining survivors of the Republican nobility, offer alternatives for those unhappy with a new upstart princeps. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 I . In 68, probably even before Galba had entered the Capitol, the Senate had set in train the trials of Neronian accus- ers, but Galba, moved by pleas from vulnerable senators, had been unen- thusiastic and the issue had lapsed. More than that, on his return to Rome, Vespasian proposed that he receive triumphal honours for his outstanding service as governor of Moesia under Nero, whose lack of generosity is implicitly condemned. While in the East, Vespasian and Mucianus had recognized Galba, Otho and Vitellius in turn. 36 p Flavian ideology The main lines of Flavian ideology were, however, clear from the start. Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 12 I . Hill (1979) 210; (1989) 25 suggests that BMCRE n 261, a ses- tertius of Titus, is a ‘blueprint’ of it, but note Mattingly on p. For this system of visiting the different areas of a province applied to all provinces, regardless of their size or how many cities they contained. In the provinces governed by impe- rial legates, too, there were significant differences in the number of com- munities, the size of the population and hence in the possible load on the governor.New archaeological discoveries and the re-assessments of earlier finds which they provoke are fundamental to almost all the chapters on the provinces, and to the study of frontiers and their nature; without archaeol- ogy there would be precious little history of the western provinces to write. How was the Senate to be given importance without power? Even the sons who were his greatest asset as a claimant to imperial power were the fruits of an unam- bitious marriage. Vespasian left when Jerusalem was under siege; he did not wait until the news of its fall on 8 September reached Alexandria. The senatorial curatores may well be predominant in our sources, but it is likely that the number drawn from among the city elites was much larger. 58 Assuming that our sources draw a partly reliable picture, then ini- tially these imperial special commissioners for individual towns were employed far more frequently in Italy than in the provinces.The interest of ‘new’ archaeology in using everyday artefacts to reconstruct settlement patterns, production and distribution systems, and cultural developments, is crucial to some of the thematic chapters and permeates the provincial studies too. How was the princeps to practise liberality without rapacity? Early in the reign of Gaius, Vespasian had married a freedwoman of Junian Latin status, who had been claimed by her father and vindicated as originally of free birth: otherwise Vespasian, as a senator, would have been debarred by the Augustan marriage legislation from entering such a union. He probably arrived in Rome in late September or early October 70. While the correctores appear mainly, but not only in the public provinces in the East, the curatores rei pub- licae ate found throughout all areas of the empire . on this, Eck, Organisation 190 ff.; Jacques (1983); Jacques, Privilege. This is not sur- prising, for unlike the provinces which had governors, in the heartland of the empire there was no regular official between the central authorities in Rome and the individual cities who could be consulted locally.Patient study of persons and titles has deepened our knowledge of the structures of the imperial government, and combining this with the literary sources in ana- lyses influenced by sociology has produced a much sharper picture of its functioning. 8 The crisis of the Jewish revolt, which broke out in 66, combined with Nero’s increasing fear of ambitious and well-born army commanders unexpectedly revived Vespasian’s chance for military glory, and he was sent to Judaea at the head of three legions. But there were darker aspects: Vespasian overcame inhibitions about the methods for obtaining money (11.84), and his close associates were no better than the discredited minions of Otho and Vitellius (11.95. At the end of July a council of war was held at Berytus. In the middle of August Mucianus set out for Italy. The resemblance of early gold and silver coins showing busts of Titus and Domitian facing 40 Vespasian’s dies imperii and his tribunicia potestas were numbered from i July 69, but the latter is not attested on documents of 69 and first appears on a diploma of 7 Mar. Where these legati—correctores served alongside the regular governors, their brief was to deal with those matters that either required so much time that the normal governor could not address them without neglecting his other duties, or to deal with the free cities as a gov- ernor might, but without reducing their status to the level of the other subject communities.The legal status, the workings and the image-building of cities have been illuminated by inscriptions ranging from the Lex Irnitana in Spain to texts recording grand benefactions and foundations in the Greek world. Vespasian’s career had not so far suggested outstanding qualities of leadership. A month or so later Vespasian and Titus started for Egypt, where they heard the news of the Flavian victory at Cremona, won by Antonius Primus and the Danubian legions on 24—5 October. In summary, then, they are the expression of an increased need to control city life by using independent officials.