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Amsterdam and Rotterdam operated as important cosmopolitan centres where merchant ships from many parts of the world brought people of various customs and beliefs.
Benedito de Espinoza was born on 24 November 1632 in the Jodenbuurt in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Jewish religious authorities issued a herem () against him, causing him to be effectively shunned by Jewish society at age 23.
His books were also later put on the Catholic Church's Index of Forbidden Books.
Pantheism, determinism, neutral monism, parallelism, intellectual and religious freedom, separation of church and state, criticism of Mosaic authorship of some books of the Hebrew Bible, political society as derived from power (not contract), affect, natura naturans/natura naturata.
Spinoza's magnum opus, Ethics, was published posthumously in 1677.